EU Projects

Research papers written in the context of projects of the European Union.

Development of the use of stainless steel in construction

This paper by B Burgan et al. was published by the European Commision. It is a research report that provides details of tests on stainless steel materials, members and connections that were carried out to develop a basis of design for a range of grades. These design rules were incorporated into Eurocode 3 EN1993 Part 1.4 (Structural design of stainless steel) and Part 1.2 (Structural fire design). The project concentrated on the most commonly used austenitic stainless steels grades EN 1.4301 and 1.4401, the duplex grade EN 1.4462 and a small number of tests on ferritic grades. The tests were performed on: Beams and Columns (I-section and CHS), Welded and bolted connections, Material and member behaviour at elevated temperatures (fire resistance) and fatigue behaviour.

Date: 2001/2004

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Stainless steel in fire

This resource summarises test data from an extensive range of fire tests on stainless steels. The resource is divided into distinct work packages that were undertaken by various organisations. These packages are: Fire resistant structures and products (analyzing temperature development in various arrangements of stainless steel elements with FE), Composite members in fire (tests on unreinforced and reinforced concrete inside EN grade 1.4401 RHS stainless steel section), Class 4 cross sections in fire (tests on loaded RHS columns), Bolts and welds at elevated temperatures (isothermal tests on butt welded joints and bolt assemblies in shear and tension), Parametric fire design (numerical studies on stainless steel as external columns and as columns in open car parks subject to realistic fire loads) and Design aids and software (A set of generic strength retention curves are developed and online software for predicting the fire resistance design of cold formed stainless steel structural members). All these packages are summarised and design guidance based on the findings is presented.

Date: 2008
Provider: Steel Construction Institute

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Structural design of cold worked austenitic stainless steel

This paper by L Gardner and N Baddoo was published in the Journal 'Thin-Walled Structures'. It provides details of extensive experimental and numerical studies on material specimens, structural members and connections in order to generate valuable data on the key aspects of the structural design of cold worked stainless steel. There are 7 Work Packages: Material properties, Structural hollow sections, Cold formed profiles and sheeting, Welded and screwed connections, Fatigue, Elevated temperature properties and Long products. In each Work Package, the testing procedure, results, numerical study and the developed design guidance are presented. This guidance aims to facilitate economic structural design by utilizing the strength enhancement created by cold working.

Date: 2006

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Application of duplex stainless steel for welded bridge construction in an aggressive environment
Steel bridges are increasingly using complex welded steelwork solutions. Recently, the most widespread construction type has been the orthotropic deck, used to build bridges ranging from a medium-span length (100 m) up to the longest-span suspension bridges (Akashi Kaikyo, Storebaelt East). Recently, many research projects and experimental activities have studied the in-service behaviour of these
complex steelworks, all of them concentrating on traditional construction steel grades, i.e. S355. Although the basic duplex mechanical properties are well known, however, it is not enough just to promote this material for huge welded bridge construction — because of the importance of such structures, more specific investigations on structural components typical of bridge structure are needed. In order to learn more, the most critical bridge components have been selected for testing and 29 tonnes of duplex grade EN 1.4462 (UR45NMo) have been produced by Industeel. During fabrication of duplex components, welding procedure specifications have been developed and differences/difficulties arising in fabrication highlighted. The testing activity concerned material characterisation by mechanical and corrosion testing, fatigue tests on several different components also involving full-scale tests, corrosion fatigue on selected critical detail, and static tests on typical elements of steel bridges, i.e. the main longitudinal beams, also produced on a large scale. Finally, an existing bridge (the Verrand viaduct) was used for both final design and life-cycle costs analysis comparing two alternative materials: high strength low alloy S460 and duplex EN1.4462 stainless steel. Experimental and numerical activities performed during the project confirmed that duplex stainless steel satisfies the bridge-design requirements: structural safety and integrity, reliability and durability. Life-cycle costs analysis demonstrated that duplex stainless steel can also be economically attractive when considering whole service-life costs: initial capital expense is recovered after 50 years of service life.
Date: 2008
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Execution and reliability of slip resistant connections for steel structures using CS and SS (SIROCO)

SIROCO investigated the slip-resistant behaviour of carbon and stainless steel preloaded connections as well as the preloading behaviour of stainless steel bolting assemblies in principle. 

Date: 2019

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Innovative and competitive solutions using SS and adhesive bonding in biogas (BiogaSS)

The BiogaSS project explores stainless steel for cost effective design for the fabrication of biodigesters. Although concrete is extensively used, it is not necessarily the most economic choice despite its low purchase cost. To prove stainless steels’ cost-efficiency, three aspects are investigated in detail, namely corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and innovative construction solutions.

Date: 2017

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